Accessorial services AC
Additional services provided by a carrier, such as sorting, packing, precooling, heating or storage.
Activity-based costing (ABC) ABS
An accounting system that measures the cost and efficiency of specific activities performed within an organisation. For example, an ABC approach might measure the cost incurred by the accounts receivable department when handling calls for billing errors (as opposed to a traditional accounting approach, which would ignore specific activities and instead measure the cost of the accounts receivable department as a percentage of revenue).
All Inclusive AI
All Inclusive
Any Quantity AQ
A rate that applies to an item, regardless of weight.
Artificial Tween Decks ATD
A section on a container vessel for oversized cargo. An artificial tween decks area is 40’ x 8’ in size, has a 1’ thick steel platform with hardwood flooring and is equipped with ten bullrings for securing oversized, heavy or wheeled cargo.
Assignment AS
The transfer of a person’s or company’s legal interests or rights to another person or company, especially the transfer of property to be held in trust or to be used for the benefit of creditors. Also, the document by which such an interest or right is transferred.
A section of a vessel where containers are placed. Bays are usually numbered to simplify loading and discharging operations.
Bill of Lading BL
A legal document signed by or for the captain/master, agents or owners of a vessel or by the (common) carrier. It is written evidence of the contract of carriage by sea and/or by land. The bill of lading is:
(1) A receipt of the goods (in the owner's/carrier's or their agent's custody)
(2) An undertaking to carry and deliver the goods safely to the place directed/agreed (and surrender the bill of lading if it stipulates delivery to order of a named person, to order (blank) or to bearer)
(3) Evidence of the terms of the contract of carriage.


A legal document issued by a carrier or carrier’s agent that acknowledges the receipt of cargo for shipment and details the type, quantity and destination of goods being carried. A bill of lading is:
(1) A conclusive receipt and acknowledgement that the goods have been loaded or received for shipment.
(2) Evidence of the terms of the contract of carriage.
(3) An undertaking to carry and deliver the goods safely to the place directed/agreed.
The act of recording arrangements or making a reservation for the transportation of goods by vessel or other conveyance. Also known as a booking request.
Cargo Declaration Amendment Fee CAM
A fee that covers resubmission of customs information if a customer makes an amendment request after the carrier has submitted documentation to local customs authorities. This fee is applicable on imports to Norway, Switzerland, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Canada, the USA, and the countries of the EU.
Container Cleaning Fee CCL
An additional fee covering the costs of extra or special cleaning if a container does not meet cleanliness standards, both inside and outside, upon return from the customer. This service may also be requested by the customer.
Currency Adjustment Factor CAF
A compensatory cost-sharing measure to remove a carrier's risks associated with currency fluctuations. A CAF fee is applicable primarily, but not limited to, routes to and from Europe. You can find a full list of routes on which the charge is applicable here. You can see an overview of CAF calculations here.
Dangerous Cargo Service Dangerous Cargo Service
A fee covering the additional costs incurred by the carrier when moving dangerous cargo to or from an inland location. These additional costs consist of licenses and permits, as well as the use of specialised certified vendors. The fee is applicable to bookings for dangerous cargo when inland haulage (export or import) has been requested by the customer.
Delivered Ex Ship DES
For more information, see > www.iccwbo.org
Delivery Delivery
(1) The physical and legal transfer of a shipment from consignor to carrier and from carrier/transport agent to consignee.
(2) The act of putting property into the legal possession of another, whether involving the actual transfer of physical control of the object from one to the other or being constructively effected in various other ways.
Delivery Duty Unpaid DDU
For more information, see > www.iccwbo.org
Delivery Ex Quay DEQ
For more information, see > www.iccwbo.org
Delivery Order Delivery Order
A document from a consignee, shipper or owner of freight instructing the terminal operator, carrier or warehouse to deliver the freight to another party. On imports, a delivery order may also be referred to as a pier release.

Though not a bill of lading or a waybill, a delivery order contains an undertaking that the carrier will deliver the stated goods to the recipient named in the document. A delivery order can also be used to transfer contractual rights by way of endorsements, but cannot be used to pass rights of ownership.
Demand Chain Demand Chain
Another name for supply chain, with emphasis on the customer or party controlling demand.
Demurrage Demurrage
A fee applicable when the customer holds carrier equipment, such as a container, in the terminal location for longer than the agreed amount of time (free days). Demurrage can be incurred for both exports (early drop-off) and imports (late pick-up).

Export: Demurrage days are counted from gate-in (full) to container loading, minus the number of allocated free days.

Import: Demurrage days are counted from container discharge to gate-out (full), minus the number of allocated free days
Detention Fee - Export Detention Fee - Export
A fee that is charged if a customer keeps carrier equipment, such as a container, for a period that exceeds that specified in the agreement. Detention days are counted from pick-up empty to gate-in full, minus the number of allocated free days. (Calculation methods may vary by country.)
Detention Fee - Import Detention Fee - Import
A fee that is charged when the customer keeps carrier equipment, such as a container, for a period that exceeds that specified in the agreement. Detention days are counted from gate-out full to gate-in empty, minus the number of allocated free days. (Calculation methods may vary by country.
Detention in Transit Service Detention in Transit Service
A service in which the carrier holds shipments at the trans-shipment port until further instructions are received from the customer. This gives the customer the flexibility to delay cargo arrival if it suits their business. A DIT charge is usually applicable.

Note: The carrier is unable to hold containers for longer than 14 days unless the customer submits a letter of indemnity to the carrier that states that the carrier will not be liable for any cargo damage not covered by insurance, during the extra detention period.
Differential Differential
The amount added to or deducted from the base rate to create a new rate for shipping to or from another point or via another route.
The amount added to or deducted from a base rate when changes are made to a shipping agreement. For example, changing the destination or route.
Distribution Distribution
The full range of activities and planning required to move a product from the production line to the end user.
Distribution Requirements Planning Distribution Requirements Planning
A system used to determine demand for inventory at distribution centres. The information is then used in production planning.
Diversion Charge Diversion Charge
A fee charged for diverting cargo from the original destination port to a new location.
A fee charged for diverting en route cargo to another destination.
Dock Receipt Dock Receipt
A receipt given for a shipment received or delivered at a pier or dock. When delivery of a foreign shipment is completed, the dock receipt is exchanged for a bill of lading with the transportation line.
Double Stack Car Double Stack Car
A rail car capable of carrying two containers stacked on top of one another.
Draft (Marine) Draft
The depth to which a vessel’s hull extends underwater (i.e. the distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull).
Draft (Rail)
A cut of coupled rail carriages.
Draft Financial
A signed order by one party that instructs another party to pay a third party a specific amount. Also known as a bill of exchange.
Drawback Drawback
A 99% refund of import or duty fees on materials that are to be re-exported.
Drayage Drayage
Inland transportation of a container from a vendor to a port of shipment, or from the discharge port to a point where the container is stripped. Drayage is undertaken for CY and CFS cargo.
Dry Dock Dry Dock
A waterless area where vessels are laid up for repair.
Dunnage Dunnage
The material placed around cargo to prevent breakage or shifting. Dunnage is normally provided by the shipper, and its weight is included in the transport rate.
Duty Drawback Duty Drawback
(1) Payment returned for cargo re-exported or trade show material.
(2) A customs refund on re-exported cargo.
EAN barcodes are used to communicate a cargo’s country of origin. There are eight digits in an EAN 8 barcode. The first two characters are used to define the country of origin, the next five are data, followed by the checksum. Two and five-digit supplemental codes are also supported
Income after a company's taxes and all other expenses have been deducted. Also referred to as profit or net income.
Equipment Interchange Receipt (EIR)
A document used when receiving or delivering a full or empty container/chassis at any terminal or inland container pool/depot.
Error List EL
A report showing discrepancies (errors) in data input.
Feeder F
A conveyance that transports cargo from the mother vessel to its final destination, or from the port at which is it first received to the mother vessel.
Floating Cranes FC
Heavy-duty cranes that are able to handle exceptionally heavy cargo (cargo that cannot be handled by conventional gantry cranes).
For-Hire Carriers FHC
People or firms engaged in the transportation of goods or passengers in return for remuneration. These are classified into two general categories: specialised carriers and general freight motor carriers.
Freight Bill FB
Also known as a Destination (Collect) Freight Bill or a Prepaid Freight Bill, a Freight Bill is a shipping document used for two purposes;
(1) A bill rendered by a transportation line to the consignee, containing the shipper’s name and a description of the freight, point of origin and weight charges (if not prepaid).
(2) A bill rendered by a transportation line to the shipper, containing a description of the freight, consignee, destination and weight charges
Freight Forwarder FF
(1) A person or company engaged in assembling, collecting, consolidating shipping and distributing less than trailer load freight.
(2) A person acting as an agent in the trans-shipment and customs clearance of freight transported to or from a foreign country.
Gantry Crane G
A port crane that moves on rail tracks; used to load and unload containers from vessels.
Handling Costs
The cost of transferring, preparing and otherwise contracting inventory.
A special container equipped with hanger beams for the purpose of transporting garments on hangers
Harmless Chemicals
A cargo description. Note: Safmarine does not accept ‘harmless chemicals’ as a valid cargo description on shipping documents, because whether a chemical is harmless or not depends on the context in which the chemical appears or is used.
International Maritime Control Organisation classification for hazardous cargo.
Immediate Transportation (IT) IT
Immediate Transportation entry allows cargo to move beyond the vessel entry point without customs clearance until it reaches its predefined destination in another US Customs district. For example, cargo entering the US at Los Angeles, destined for Chicago, can move to Chicago before having a customs inspection.
Goods and services brought in from abroad.
An import shipment.
Incoterms Incoterms
Incoterms 2000 is the latest version of the International Chamber of Commerce's standard trade definitions, commonly known as the INCO terms. The terms consist of 13 rules that are fundamental to international trade, defining the most important responsibilities of buyers and sellers in international sales contracts. Incoterms are a basic reference for sales contracts, recognised as the international standard by customs authorities and courts everywhere. Since they were first published in 1936, Incoterms – a trademarked ICC product – have been updated six times. For more information, see: www.iccwbo.org.
OR Incoterms®
Incoterms are the International Chamber of Commerce's standard trade definitions. The Incoterms rules are an internationally recognised standard and are used worldwide in international and domestic contracts for the sale of goods. They help international traders avoid costly misunderstandings by clarifying the tasks, costs and risks involved in the delivery of goods from sellers to buyers. For more information, see: www.iccwbo.org.
Independent Action IA
Action taken by an individual member of a conference agreement, to change the rates or terms of a conference tariff
A carrier that is not a member of a shipping conference.
Information System Agreement (ISA) ISA
A leading organisation of ocean carriers that develops, promotes and implements e-commerce solutions for the maritime industry.
A company that transports shipments between ports and inland destinations.
Inland point intermodal (IPI) IPI
Cargo transported over land, to or from an inland destination. See also land bridge.
A document that assures the consignee that insurance is provided to cover loss or damage to the cargo while in transit; a certificate issued by an insurer to a shipper (or other party) as evidence that a shipment of merchandise is covered under a marine policy
Carriers that have both air and ground fleets, or other combinations, such as sea, rail and truck. Integrated carriers usually handle thousands of small parcels an hour.
Interleaved 2 of 5 INTERLEAVED 2 OF 5
This is strictly a numeric barcode. Each encoded character is made up of five elements, two are wide and three are narrow. The number of characters to be printed must be an even number. If the number of characters to be printed is odd, a zero will be appended to the beginning of the code.
A numeric-only barcode, mainly used in the shipping and warehousing industries.
A numeric-only barcode made up of five bars and five spaces, and mainly used in the shipping and warehousing industries.
Coordinated transport of goods using two or more modes of transport (especially in connection with relatively long-haul movements). For example, a container transported by sea, rail and road.
Intermodal Marketing Company IMC
A company that consolidates container loads from several shippers and then contracts with road and rail transportation providers for volume space.
Freight forwarders that handle the booking, administration and consolidation of exports.
International Maritime Control Organisation IMCO
See IMO.
International Transport Implementation Guidelines Group (ITIGG) ITIGG
The ITIGG is an international group of experts engaged in the development and implementation of UN/EDIFACT-standard messages for electronic trading in the transport industry. ITIGG is a subgroup of D4, the UN/EDIFACT
Message Development Group for Transport. ITIGG develops recommendations that provide software developers with a series of simple and straightforward tools to assist in designing applications that can be used for trading electronically throughout the world.
The total cost of holding goods in storage, including warehousing, obsolescence, deterioration, spoilage, labour, insurance and taxes. Also known as carrying cost or holding cost.
The cost of goods sold, divided by the average level of inventory on hand. The ratio measures how many times a company's inventory has been sold during the year.
The speed at which products move from the receiving dock to the shipping dock
A rate from a point located on one transportation line to a point on another transportation line that is published in a single tariff. OR A single rate charged by two or more carriers to transport a shipment of goods.
A single rate applied to a shipment that is carried by two or more carriers.
Section 27 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920, requiring that all shipments by water between ports in the United States (including Puerto Rico) be carried by US-flagged, US-built, and US-crewed vessels.
Journal of Commerce JOC
A trade publication about transportation.
A biweekly magazine published in the USA that focuses on topics and issues that concern global trade.
Just-In-Time JIT
A method of inventory control, in which warehousing is minimal or non-existent. The container is seen as a moveable warehouse and must arrive ‘just in time’, (i.e. not too early and not too late).
The management of freight and information throughout the total supply chain, from the original raw material source to the ultimate consumer of the finished product, encompassing factories, assembly and packing plants, warehouses, distribution centres and retail outlets.
Any cargo that requires a label according to the provisions of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code.
Containers moving from a foreign country by vessel, and then sent to an inland point by rail or truck; also known as a mini land bridge (MLB). OR An overland leg in an ocean journey, in which containers arriving by ocean vessel are transported overland by road or rail and delivered to another vessel for further transportation by sea. Compare to mini land bridge (MLB).
Less than container load (LCL)
A common term used for a shipment that does not require the full capacity of a container. Shipping rates per unit are commonly higher for LCLs. Consolidating several LCLs, from different places or shippers, to fill a container can reduce costs. Also known as less than trailer load (LTL
Less Than Container Load LCL
A common term used for a shipment that does not require the full capacity of a container. Shipping rates per unit are commonly higher for LCLs. Consolidating several LCLs, from different places or shippers, to fill a container can reduce costs. Also known as less than trailer load (LTL)
Less than trailer load (LTL) LTL

See less than container load (LCL).

Letter of Credit LC
Letters of credit may take various forms, represent various undertakings for various purposes and be subject to different conditions.
(1) Letter of agreement issued by a bank, stating that a foreign purchaser has established a line of credit in a seller's favour, and confirming that payment for goods will be made upon presentation of certain documents, which are in agreement with the terms in the letter of credit.
(2) A letter addressed by a banker to a correspondent certifying that a person named therein is entitled to draw on the banker, or the banker’s credit, up to a certain sum.
(3) A letter addressed by a banker to a person to whom credit is given, authorising that person to draw on the issuing bank, or on a bank in the person’s country, up to a certain sum, and guaranteeing to accept the drafts if duly made. Also referred to as a commercial letter of credit, confirmed credit or confirmed letter of credit.
The management of freight and information throughout the total supply chain, from the original raw material source to the ultimate consumer of the finished product, encompassing factories, assembly and packing plants, warehouses, distribution centres and retail outlets.
A terminal operator who is designated to facilitate the operation of loading and discharging vessels and various terminal activities. Also known as a stevedore.
This barcode is a variable length barcode that can encode up to 15 numeric digits. Checksum generation is dependent on the value of the checksum parameter. The following table indicates the value of the checksum property and the type of checksum created. Setting, Description, 0, one modulus 10 checksum, 1, two modulus 10 checksums, 2, one modulus 11 checksum/one modulus 10 checksum.
A listing of all cargo on board a vessel as required by the relevant local authorities (e.g. customs); also known as a cargo manifest.
Marks and Numbers MARKS AND NUMBERS
The identifying details on or of a package, or the actual markings that appear on the packages. OR The symbols and numbers used to identify cargo.
The symbols and numbers used to identify different pieces of cargo on a ship.
The procurement, movement and management of materials and products from acquisition through to production.
Service of coordinating 3rd party logistics services (Merchant Haulage arrangements) on behalf of the customer. This service is applied based upon the customer's request for the carrier to coordinate inland haulage on a merchant haulage Bill of Lading. The customer holds the contract with the haulage provider. The carrier can refuse to offer this service.
Metric ton (MT) MT
1 metric ton = 2,204.62 lbs or 35.314 cubic ft.
Mini land bridge (MLB MLB
Containers arriving in a country by vessel that are then transported by road or rail to an inland destination. Also known as a land bridge.
A shipment consisting of items described in and classified under two or more rate items in a tariff.
The main ocean vessel in a liner service designated to move containers from set origin points to set destination ports/points on a regular basis.
Negotiable Bill of Lading NEGOTIABLE BILL OF LADING
A negotiable bill of lading can be negotiated, transferred or assigned from one person to another in return for the equivalent value by being delivered
The bank where a shipper negotiates documents or where documents are first presented, usually at country of origin; also referred to as the advising bank.
A space-saving storage technique, in which three or more different sized items are placed one within the other or on top of each other.
Investigating body designated by conference carriers to ensure that all regulations and rules are adhered to.
Third-party providers who generally do not own assets, such as transportation or warehouse equipment.
Non-Negotiable Bill of Lading NON-NEGOTIABLE BILL OF LADING
A non-negotiable bill of lading is not a document of title and cannot be transferred.
Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC NVOCC
A carrier offering an international cargo transport service through the use of underlying carriers and under their own rate structure in accordance with tariffs filed with the Federal Maritime Commission in Washington D.C., USA.
Not otherwise enumerated NOE
Not otherwise enumerated
Not otherwise stated NOS
Not otherwise stated
The company or person, identified in the bill of lading or waybill, that must be notified when the cargo arrives at destination. This could be different from the consignee, but is usually the receiver of the goods. A notify party has no particular rights (beyond the notification) under the bill of lading or waybill.

Service of providing inland import transportation to our customer's premises from the port of discharge. This offers the customer flexibility of door to door transportation. This service is applicable when the carrier provides inland transportation to the desired inland location, based on the request of the customer.

On-deck stowage
Cargo stowed on the deck of a vessel.
On-time performance
The number of times that a transit system adheres to its published schedule times within stated tolerances; normally expressed as a percentage.
Open rates
Rates established for each individual carrier. These rates are listed in a tariff list, but may differ according to carrier.
Order cycle ORDER CYCLE
The time and the process involved from the placement of an order to the receipt of the shipment. The order cycle includes the following processes: communicating the order, order processing and transportation of the shipment.
Origin motor terminal/Origin rail terminal/Destination motor terminal OMT, ORT, DMT
The company or person, identified in the bill of lading or waybill, that must be notified when the cargo arrives at destination. This could be different from the consignee, but is usually the receiver of the goods. A notify party has no particular rights (beyond the notification) under the bill of lading or waybill.
Original Bill of Lading OBL
See Negotiable Bill of Lading.
Out of Gauge service
A service in which Out of Gauge cargo is handled. Out of Gauge refers to cargo that exceeds the dimensions of a standard container by length, width, height and/or weight. It can be shipped as containerised cargo, but special handling and equipment is required.
Export shipments.
A destination port, other than a base port, to which rates apply but which may be subject to additional outport arbitraries.
To hire a third-party provider to assume tasks or services.
Over-landed cargo
(1) The cargo volume count is higher than originally shipped.
(2) Cargo taken beyond the original port of discharge.
Overland Common Port (OPC) OCP
A special rate concession made by shipping lines, rail carriers and truckers serving the U.S. West Coast for export and import traffic, intended to benefit midwest shippers and importers by equalising rates to and from other coastal areas, and offering these midwest companies a comparable alternative. The steamship companies lower their rates and the inland carriers pick up the terminal charges, which consist of handling charges, wharfage charges and car loading or unloading charges. OCP rates apply to cargo shipped from or consigned to the states of: North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, New Mexico and all states east thereof. OCP rates in Canada apply to the provinces of: Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec.
The POSTNET barcode is used on envelopes and postcards that are sent through the U.S. Postal Service. This barcode is placed in the lower right-hand corner of the envelope.
Packing List
A list of packages in each shipment, showing an individual breakdown of the weights/measures and quantity.
A wooden structure used to support cargo and ease movement by forklift.
Partlow Chart
An instrument that records the internal temperature of a reefer container.
Partnerships and alliances
Shippers and providers who enter into agreements designed to benefit both parties.
Per Diem
On a daily basis.
Physical distribution
All logistics activities from the production line to the final user, including traffic, packaging, materials handling, warehousing, order entry, customer service, inventory control etc.
A structure built along a shore, and often projecting into the water, at which boats can be docked and loaded or unloaded; also known as a quay or wharf.
The transportation of highway trailers or demountable trailer bodies by rail on specially equipped flat carriages; also known as a trailer-on-flatcar rail service.
Cargo stolen from the container, warehouse or terminal.
Plimsoll Mark
Marking on the side of a ship’s hull that represents the depth to which the vessel may safely be immersed when loaded. The Plimsoll mark is identified by a circle with a vertical line through it, and a number of small horizontal lines showing the maximum depth for specific water types and temperatures. Also known as a plimsoll line.
The strategic movement of empty containers and equipment from areas of surplus to areas of need
Pre-Carriage PRE - CARRIAGE
The service of transporting export cargo inland, from the customer's premises to the port of loading.
Pre-trip inspection service
A service arranged by the carrier in which a technician completes extra checks on a temperature-controlled container to ensure that it is functional and ready to transport commodities at the required temperature. The inspection is performed before the release of the empty container. This service is provided upon the customer's request and/or for certain types of commodities for which it is mandatory.
Purchase order (PO)
Common grouping of orders for goods or services. Several SKU categories may be listed on one purchase order. Most customers group their orders in a particular way to facilitate efficient distribution. For example, one purchase order for an apparel importer might include 24 green sweaters and 24 red sweaters.
Quality control
The systematic planning, measuring and control of people, materials, metrology and machines, with the objective of producing a product that satisfies the quality and profitability requirements of a business.
A structure built along a shore, and often projecting into the water, at which boats can be docked and loaded or unloaded; also known as a pier or wharf.
Quick response QR
A consumer-driven system of replenishment in which products and information flow through a paperless (EDI) system between all distribution points from the manufacturing line to the retail checkout counter. Distributors, carriers and suppliers act as trading partners and focus on improving the total supply system.
A legal instrument used to release one person's right, title or interest to another without providing a guarantee or warranty of title.
A location for loading and unloading containers at a railroad terminal.
Rate agreement
An agreement made between a group of carriers who discuss rates and common problems, but still have the option to file independent tariffs.
Re-engineering RE-ENGINEERING
An approach to improving business operations through reinventing, re-evaluating, redesigning and redoing.
Received for Shipment Bill of Lading
A type of bill of lading that can be issued when a carrier receives or takes custody of goods, even before the goods are loaded onto a ship or other form of transport. It is usually switched to an onboard bill of lading or added as an onboard notation once the goods are loaded.
Register ton REGISTER TON
A unit representing the interior capacity of a ship, equal in volume to a vessel ton.
1 register ton = 2.832 m3 (100 ft3)
1 vessel ton = 100 ft3 (2.832 m3)
A marine shipment that is transferred to its final destination port after being shipped to an intermediate point.
The process of moving inventory from a reserve storage location to a primary picking location or another mode of storage where picking is performed.
Cargo to be returned to the original place of receipt.
Cargo carried by a vessel from destination to origin.
Revenue ton
A billing unit. On freight that is paid for per ton, the revenue ton is the total number of tons.
A billing unit based on the weight or volume of a shipment. The unit of measurement that generates the highest revenue is deemed the revenue ton.
Reverse logistics REVERSE LOGISTICS
A general term for operations related to the reuse of products and materials. The management of these operations can be referred to as Product Recovery Management (PRM). PRM is concerned with the care of products and materials after they have been used. Some of these activities are similar to those used for internal returns of defective items due to unreliable production processes. Reverse logistics, however, refers to all logistics activities in connection with PRM, including the collection, disassembly and processing of the returned products, product parts and/or materials.
Short for Roll-on/Roll-off vessel. Ro-Ros are used for carrying cars and light trucks. The vehicles are driven on and off the vessel, rather than being loaded using cranes or other equipment.
A user group for shipping lines and container terminals. SMDG develops and promotes UN/EDIFACT EDI messages for the maritime industry and is an official Pan-European User Group, recognised by the UN/EDIFACT Board.
Abbreviation for Steamship.
Abbreviation for Said to Contain.
A type of bill of lading used for port-to-port or combined transport carriage, also known as a waybill. A seawaybill/waybill is identical to a negotiable bill of lading except that it is not a document of title. There are no originals issued for this type of document. In some jurisdictions, such as the USA, a seawaybill/waybill is deemed the equivalent of a (straight) consigned bill of lading.
Service agreement SERVICE AGREEMENT
A private contract between one or more carriers and one or more shippers to transport cargo between specified points under terms and conditions of carriage agreed and listed in the contract. It often allows for particular rates, based on volume over a specified period of time. Also commonly known as a service contract.
Set point SET POINT
The specific temperature that a refrigerated container has been set to. Ideally, the set point and the actual temperature should be identical throughout the voyage.
Ship's chandler SHIP'S CHANDLERS
A supplier of various items and equipment to a vessel
(1) Person who consigns something (e.g. the goods of an individual shipment).
(2) Legal entity or person named on the bill of lading or seawaybill as the shipper, and/or for whom, in whose name or on whose behalf, a contract of carriage has been concluded with a carrier. Also known as consignor.
Shipper-packed SHIPPER PACKED
Contents of containers as loaded (stuffed), stowed (packed/braced), weighed and/or counted by, or for, the shipper. Usually a container yard load.
Shipping order SHIPPING ORDER
Equivalent of a booking and contract of carriage. A shipping order is evidence of the agreement between different parties to transport goods.
Short ton (ST) ST
1 Short Ton = 907.19 kg (2,000 lbs).
Short-landed SHORT LANDED
The name given to the cargo volume count at the delivery destination if it is less than originally shipped.
Slot charter SLOT CHARTER
A carrier's chartering of slots/spaces on other carriers’ vessels. (See vessel sharing agreement.)
Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) SWIFT
A cooperative organised under Belgian law, SWIFT provides the following services to participating financial institutions: Letters of credit (opening and transmission), money transfers, and payment of security settlements. Other businesses participating in SWIFT are: Security brokers and delaters, clearing and depository institutions, security exchanges and travellers’ cheque issuers.
An official form usually required by U.S. Customs if the rate of duty is based upon the value, and the value of the shipment exceeds USD 500. This document is usually prepared by the foreign exporter or the forwarder, and is used by customs to determine the value of the shipment. The exporter or the agent must attest to the authenticity of the data provided.
Special rate SPECIAL RATE
The rate established for a specified commodity for a specific period of time.
A terminal operator who is designated to facilitate the operation of loading and discharging vessels and various terminal activities. Also known as a longshoreman.
Stock keeping unit (SKU) SKU
The smallest unit grouping for goods, normally indicating a single retail item. Usually, several SKUs will be under one purchase order.
Storage charge STORAGE CHARGE
The time-based storage charge for goods held in storage facilities (warehouses) under a fixed agreement.
Store-door delivery STORE-DOOR DELIVERY
A service providing inland transportation to a customer's premises from the port of discharge.
A service offered to the customer in which the carrier performs stripping (cargo unloading) of the customer's container at the port area. This service is provided upon customer request.
A service offered to the customer in which the carrier performs stuffing (cargo loading) of the customer's container at the port area. This service is provided upon customer request.
Supply chain SUPPLY CHAIN
The movement of materials and information through the logistics process from the acquisition of raw materials through to delivery to end user. The supply chain includes all vendors, service providers and customers.
Supply chain management SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
The management and control of all materials and information in the logistics process from the acquisition of raw materials through to delivery to end user.
Additional charges above basic ocean freight. See also Add-ons
Switch Bill of Lading SWITCH BILL OF LADING
This service is provided by the carrier to 'switch' transport documents (bills of lading) to other parties in the shipping process by issuing a second set of documents. A 'switch' can be carried out to prevent the shipper from being visible to the buyer, or to protect the interests of the cargo intermediary. This service is available upon customer request.
A document that can be issued to simplify border crossings in Europe. Customs at a European location place a seal on a container and issue the TIR Carnet. The document and seal allow the container to cross borders within the EU without undergoing customs inspection until it reaches its destination country.
Tare weight TARE WEIGHT
The weight of an empty container. Gross weight = net weight + tare weight.
A list of published rates, rules and regulations applicable to the transportation of goods in specified trade lanes or between two areas.
Terminal Handling Service-Destination DHC
This service covers the cost of handling a container at the destination port or terminal. It is applicable to all shipments.
Terminal Handling Service-Origin OHC
This service covers the cost of handling a container at the origin port or terminal. It is applicable to all shipments.
Terminal Receiving Charge TRC
Charge assessed by the terminal for cargo being delivered for export.
Terms of Sale TOS
The delivery and payment terms agreed between a buyer and a seller. In international trade, Terms of Sale also set out the rights and obligations of buyers and sellers as applicable in the transportation of goods.
Third-party providers THIRD PARTY PROVIDERS
Companies that are employed (hired) to complete tasks for another compan
Through rates THROUGH RATES
A rate applicable from point of origin to destination. A through rate may be either a joint rate or a combination of two or more rates.
To order of shipper TO ORDER OF SHIPPER
When a shipper, by way of endorsement and the passing of the document, allows the transfer of rights to take delivery of the goods listed in the document (e.g. a bill of lading).
(1) The sum of average order quantity (one half of order quantity) plus safety stock. Safety stock is the amount on hand after the arrival of the order.
(2) The average normal-use stock, plus the average lead stock, plus safety stock.
Total Cost of Distribution TOTAL COST OF DISTRIBUTION
The sum of purchasing, transportation and storage costs in the movement of finished products through the post production channel.
Total Quality Management (TQM) TQM
An approach to business management that focuses on quality and typically has a strong customer orientation, total involvement, measurement systems, systematic support and focus on continuous improvement.
A request on a transportation line to trace a shipment for the purpose of expediting its movement or estimating the delivery date. Common usage of this term has been simplified to mean any request for the status of a shipment.
Trailer on Flat Car Rail TOFC
A container loaded onto a rail carriage for transportation.
The transfer of containers between vessels. Synonymous with trans-shipments.
Transmittal letter TRANSMITTAL LETTER
A document that lists the particulars of a shipment and a record of the documents being transmitted, as well as instructions for the disposition of the documents.
Twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) TEU
A measure of container capacity still used by some institutions. The dimensions of one TEU are equal to that of a standard 20-foot shipping container. One TEU can accommodate 9-11 pallets, depending on the type of pallet. Two TEUs are to equal one FEU (forty-foot equivalent unit).
UCC-128 UCC-128
A subset of the Code 128 barcode specification, used mostly on shipping containers. It is numeric only, and has a fixed length of 19 digits.
The United Nations’ Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business. UN-CEFACT facilitates international transactions through the simplification and harmonisation of procedures and information flows.
The United Nations’ Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport. UN-EDIFACT is the international standard developed by the UN for electronic communication and data exchange.
UPC (Universal Product Code) version A, used to encode an 11-digit number. The first digit is the system number and the rest are data characters. Two-digit and five-digit supplemental codes are also supported.
UPCE (Universal Product Code) version E – 11-Digit. A zero-suppressed version of the UPCA barcode. This version allows 11 digits to be encoded. The first digit must be zero. Two-digit and five-digit supplemental codes are also supported.
UPCE (Universal Product Code) version E0 – 6-Digit. A zero-suppressed version of the UPCA barcode. This version allows six digits to be encoded. The first digit must be zero. Two-digit and five-digit supplemental codes are also supported.
UPCE (Universal Product Code) version E1 – 6-Digit. A zero-suppressed version of the UPCA barcode. This version allows six digits to be encoded. The first digit must be zero. Two-digit and five-digit supplemental codes are also supported.
The cost associated with a single unit of a product or service. The unit cost is calculated by dividing the total cost of producing a product or service by the number of units.
The legal right of using and enjoying the profits of something belonging to another party.
A person or company that supplies merchandise or services to another company.
Vessel sharing agreement VSA
A term agreement between two or more carriers, in which a number of container positions (‘slots’) of equal space are reserved on particular vessels for each participant in the agreement. The number of reserved slots can vary between vessels on the same route, according to vessel type and direction. The number of slots can be used to express the capacity used by a participant on a vessel that is employed by more than one carrier.
Vessel ton VESSEL TON
A unit representing the interior capacity of a ship, equal in volume to a register ton.
1 vessel ton = 100 ft3 (2.832 m3)
1 register ton = 2.832 m3 (100 ft3)
Volume rate VOLUME RATE
A rate applied to a specified volume or weight of freight.
A document used to allow cargo to be carried by a vessel with a different flag than the destination country. Also, used for government cargo that cannot be carried by vessels under certain flags.
See Seawaybill.
Gross/Long ton: 1016 kg (2,240 lbs)
Net/Short ton: 907.19 kg (2,000 lbs)
Metric/Kilo ton: 1,000 kg (2,204.6 lbs)
A structure built along a shore, and often projecting into the water, at which boats can be docked and loaded or unloaded; also known as a pier or quay.
A fee charged by a port authority or port operator to the carrier for the use of a port's wharf. The carrier usually charges the fee to the customer in order to provide transparency and share the costs. This fee is applicable to shipments moving to/from port terminals that charge wharfage. Also known as wharfage fee or wharfage charge.
The standard unit for inter-industry electronic interchange of business transactions.
Requiring or containing only a small amount of moisture. For example, ‘a xeric environment’.
Year to date YTD
Up to the present day in the current year.
Abbreviation for: Azimuth, Zinc.
Marked with or arranged in zones.

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